Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the leading cause of chronic viral hepatitis. Annually, almost two million children younger than 5 years acquire the infection, mostly through vertical or horizontal transmission in early life. Vertical transmission of HBV is a high efficacy phenomenon ranging, in the absence of any preventive interventions, from 70% to 90% for hepatitis e antigen positive mothers and from 10% to 40% for hepatitis e antigen-negative mothers. Maternal viraemia is a preeminent risk factor for vertical transmission of HBV. Maternal screening is the first step to prevent vertical transmission of HBV. Hepatitis B passive and active immunoprophylaxis at birth together with antiviral treatment of highly viraemic mothers are the key strategies for global elimination of HBV infection. Strategies are needed to promote implementation of birth-dose vaccination and hepatitis B immunoglobulins in low- and middle-income countries where the prevalence of the infection is at the highest.
Prevention of vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus infection / Veronese, P.; Dodi, I.; Esposito, S.; Indolfi, G.. - In: WORLD JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY. - ISSN 1007-9327. - 27:26(2021), pp. 4182-4193. [10.3748/wjg.v27.i26.4182]
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