The gut microbiome (GM) has emerged as a key factor in the genesis and progression of many diseases. The intestinal bacterial composition also influences treatment-related side effects and even the efficacy of oncological therapies. Acute leukemia (AL) is the most common cancer among children and the most frequent cause of cancer-related death during childhood. Outcomes have improved considerably over the past 4 decades, with the current long-term survival for acute lymphoblastic leukemia being ∼90%. However, several acute toxicities and long-term sequelae are associated with the multimodal therapy protocols applied in these patients. Specific GM configurations could contribute to the multistep developmental hypothesis for leukemogenesis. Moreover, GM alterations occur during the AL therapeutic course and are associated with treatment-related complications, especially during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The GM perturbation could last even after the removal of microbiome-modifying factors, like antibiotics, chemotherapeutic drugs, or alloimmune reactions, contributing to several health-related issues in AL survivors. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of the chronological changes of GM in children with AL, from predisposition to cure. The underpinning biological processes and the potential interventions to modulate the GM toward a potentially health-promoting configuration are also highlighted.
Gut microbiome in pediatric acute leukemia: From predisposition to cure / Masetti, R.; Muratore, E.; Leardini, D.; Zama, D.; Turroni, S.; Brigidi, P.; Esposito, S.; Pession, A.. - In: BLOOD ADVANCES. - ISSN 2473-9537. - 5:22(2021), pp. 4619-4629. [10.1182/bloodadvances.2021005129]
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