The development and spread of antibiotic resistance is an increasingly important global public health problem, even in paediatric urinary tract infection (UTI). In light of the variability in the data, it is necessary to conduct surveillance studies to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in specific geographical areas to optimize therapeutic management. In this observational, retrospective, multicentre study, the medical records of 1801 paediatric patients who were hospital-ised for UTI between January 1st, 2012, and June 30th, 2020, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, were analysed. Escherichia coli was the most frequently detected pathogen (75.6%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.9%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.5%). Overall, 840 cases (46.7%) were due to anti-microbial-resistant uropathogens: 83 (4.7%) extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing, 119 (6.7%) multidrug resistant (MDR) and 4 (0.2%) extensively drug resistant (XDR) bacteria. Empirical antibiotic therapy failed in 172 cases (9.6%). Having ESBL or MDR/XDR uropathogens, a history of recurrent UTI, antibiotic therapy in the preceding 30 days, and empirical treatment with amoxicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanate were significantly associated with treatment failure, whereas first-line therapy with third-generation cephalosporins was associated with protection against negative outcomes. In conclusion, the increase in the resistance of uropathogens to commonly used antibiotics requires continuous monitoring, and recommendations for antibiotic choice need updating. In our epidemiological context, amoxicillin/clavulanate no longer seems to be the appropriate first-line therapy for children hospitalised for UTI, whereas third-generation cephalosporins continue to be useful. To further limit the emergence of resistance, every effort to reduce and ration-alise antibiotic consumption must be implemented.
Retrospective 8-year study on the antibiotic resistance of uropathogens in children hospitalised for urinary tract infection in the emilia-romagna region, italy / Esposito, S.; Maglietta, G.; Di Costanzo, M.; Ceccoli, M.; Vergine, G.; La Scola, C.; Malaventura, C.; Falcioni, A.; Iacono, A.; Crisafi, A.; Iughetti, L.; Conte, M. L.; Pierantoni, L.; Gatti, C.; Caminiti, C.; Biasucci, G.. - In: ANTIBIOTICS. - ISSN 2079-6382. - 10:10(2021), p. 1207.1207. [10.3390/antibiotics10101207]
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