Objectives: Identifying infection aetiology is essential for appropriate antibiotic use. Previous studies have shown that a host-protein signature consisting of TNF-related apoptosis-induced ligand (TRAIL), interferon-γ-induced protein-10 (IP-10), and C-reactive protein (CRP) can accurately differentiate bacterial from viral infections. Methods: This prospective, multicentre cohort study, entitled AutoPilot-Dx, aimed to validate signature performance and to estimate its potential impact on antibiotic use across a broad paediatric population (>90 days to 18 years) with respiratory tract infections, or fever without source, at emergency departments and wards in Italy and Germany. Infection aetiology was adjudicated by experts based on clinical and laboratory investigations, including multiplex PCR and follow-up data. Results: In total, 1140 patients were recruited (February 2017–December 2018), of which 1008 met the eligibility criteria (mean age 3.5 years, 41.9% female). Viral and bacterial infections were adjudicated for 628 (85.8%) and 104 (14.2%) children, respectively; 276 patients were assigned an indeterminate reference standard outcome. For the 732 children with reference standard aetiology, the signature discriminated bacterial from viral infections with a sensitivity of 93.7% (95%CI 88.7–98.7), a specificity of 94.2% (92.2–96.1), positive predictive value of 73.0% (65.0–81.0), and negative predictive value of 98.9% (98.0–99.8); in 9.8% the test results were equivocal. The signature performed consistently across different patient subgroups and detected bacterial immune responses in viral PCR-positive patients. Conclusions: The findings validate the high diagnostic performance of the TRAIL/IP-10/CRP signature in a broad paediatric cohort, and support its potential to reduce antibiotic overuse in children with viral infections.

A host signature based on TRAIL, IP-10, and CRP for reducing antibiotic overuse in children by differentiating bacterial from viral infections: a prospective, multicentre cohort study / Papan, C.; Argentiero, A.; Porwoll, M.; Hakim, U.; Farinelli, E.; Testa, I.; Pasticci, M. B.; Mezzetti, D.; Perruccio, K.; Etshtein, L.; Mastboim, N.; Moscoviz, E.; Ber, T. I.; Cohen, A.; Simon, E.; Boico, O.; Shani, L.; Gottlieb, T. M.; Navon, R.; Barash, E.; Oved, K.; Eden, E.; Simon, A.; Liese, J. G.; Knuf, M.; Stein, M.; Yacobov, R.; Bamberger, E.; Schneider, S.; Esposito, S.; Tenenbaum, T.. - In: CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY AND INFECTION. - ISSN 1198-743X. - (2021). [10.1016/j.cmi.2021.10.019]

A host signature based on TRAIL, IP-10, and CRP for reducing antibiotic overuse in children by differentiating bacterial from viral infections: a prospective, multicentre cohort study

Argentiero A.;Esposito S.;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Objectives: Identifying infection aetiology is essential for appropriate antibiotic use. Previous studies have shown that a host-protein signature consisting of TNF-related apoptosis-induced ligand (TRAIL), interferon-γ-induced protein-10 (IP-10), and C-reactive protein (CRP) can accurately differentiate bacterial from viral infections. Methods: This prospective, multicentre cohort study, entitled AutoPilot-Dx, aimed to validate signature performance and to estimate its potential impact on antibiotic use across a broad paediatric population (>90 days to 18 years) with respiratory tract infections, or fever without source, at emergency departments and wards in Italy and Germany. Infection aetiology was adjudicated by experts based on clinical and laboratory investigations, including multiplex PCR and follow-up data. Results: In total, 1140 patients were recruited (February 2017–December 2018), of which 1008 met the eligibility criteria (mean age 3.5 years, 41.9% female). Viral and bacterial infections were adjudicated for 628 (85.8%) and 104 (14.2%) children, respectively; 276 patients were assigned an indeterminate reference standard outcome. For the 732 children with reference standard aetiology, the signature discriminated bacterial from viral infections with a sensitivity of 93.7% (95%CI 88.7–98.7), a specificity of 94.2% (92.2–96.1), positive predictive value of 73.0% (65.0–81.0), and negative predictive value of 98.9% (98.0–99.8); in 9.8% the test results were equivocal. The signature performed consistently across different patient subgroups and detected bacterial immune responses in viral PCR-positive patients. Conclusions: The findings validate the high diagnostic performance of the TRAIL/IP-10/CRP signature in a broad paediatric cohort, and support its potential to reduce antibiotic overuse in children with viral infections.
2021
A host signature based on TRAIL, IP-10, and CRP for reducing antibiotic overuse in children by differentiating bacterial from viral infections: a prospective, multicentre cohort study / Papan, C.; Argentiero, A.; Porwoll, M.; Hakim, U.; Farinelli, E.; Testa, I.; Pasticci, M. B.; Mezzetti, D.; Perruccio, K.; Etshtein, L.; Mastboim, N.; Moscoviz, E.; Ber, T. I.; Cohen, A.; Simon, E.; Boico, O.; Shani, L.; Gottlieb, T. M.; Navon, R.; Barash, E.; Oved, K.; Eden, E.; Simon, A.; Liese, J. G.; Knuf, M.; Stein, M.; Yacobov, R.; Bamberger, E.; Schneider, S.; Esposito, S.; Tenenbaum, T.. - In: CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY AND INFECTION. - ISSN 1198-743X. - (2021). [10.1016/j.cmi.2021.10.019]
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
43. A host signature based on TRAIL, IP-10, and CRP_nov-21.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Versione (PDF) editoriale
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 1.03 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.03 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11381/2907153
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 33
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 33
social impact