: Several studies have shown that in recent years incidence of acute otitis media (AOM) has declined worldwide. However, related medical, social, and economic problems for patients, their families, and society remain very high. Better knowledge of potential risk factors for AOM development and more effective preventive interventions, particularly in AOM-prone children, can further reduce disease incidence. However, a more accurate AOM diagnosis seems essential to achieve this goal. Diagnostic uncertainty is common, and to avoid risks related to a disease caused mainly by bacteria, several children without AOM are treated with antibiotics and followed as true AOM cases. The main objective of this manuscript is to discuss the most common difficulties that presently limit accurate AOM diagnosis and the new approaches and technologies that have been proposed to improve disease detection. We showed that misdiagnosis can be dangerous or lead to relevant therapeutic mistakes. The need to improve AOM diagnosis has allowed the identification of a long list of technologies to visualize and evaluate the tympanic membrane and to assess middle-ear effusion. Most of the new instruments, including light field otoscopy, optical coherence tomography, low-coherence interferometry, and Raman spectroscopy, are far from being introduced in clinical practice. Video-otoscopy can be effective, especially when it is used in association with telemedicine, parents' cooperation, and artificial intelligence. Introduction of otologic telemedicine and use of artificial intelligence among pediatricians and ENT specialists must be strongly promoted in order to reduce mistakes in AOM diagnosis.
New Approaches and Technologies to Improve Accuracy of Acute Otitis Media Diagnosis / Esposito, Susanna; Bianchini, Sonia; Argentiero, Alberto; Gobbi, Riccardo; Vicini, Claudio; Principi, Nicola. - In: DIAGNOSTICS. - ISSN 2075-4418. - 11:12(2021), p. 2392. [10.3390/diagnostics11122392]
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