Background: Microsatellite instable (MSI) phenotype, as expression of mismatch-repair deficiency, characterizes tumors with high mutational load and consequently increased production of immunogenic neoantigens [1]. These characteristics have been correlated with susceptibility to immune checkpoint inhibitors (CKI) [2]. Nevertheless, MSI is rare (34%) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), although CKI are effective in a significant fraction of advanced tumors. We evaluated the hypothesis that loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of relevant tumor suppressor genes (TSG) might provide a measure of tumor immunogenicity, contributing as “the missing instability” to a high fractional allele loss (FAL) potentially underlying the rate of disease control obtained with CKI. We preliminary report the possible predictive value of LOH at different loci on 3p in patients with advanced RCC treated with the anti-PD-1 Nivolumab. Materials and methods: Only patients with assessable response according to the immune-related radiologic criteria were included. After DNA extraction from FFPE tissues of nephrectomy specimens, LOH study was performed by PCR for the microsatellite markers D3S1481 (3p14.2, FHIT gene) and D3S1478 (3p21.321.2). Non-informative (NI) cases due to homozygosity were subsequently tested for D3S1621 (3p21.2, LCTSGR1 gene). Non-informative cases for all loci were excluded. MSI was also assessed using two classical mononucleotide markers, BAT-25 and BAT-26. Results: Nine RCC cases evaluable for response were analyzed. All of them had microsatellite stable phenotype (MSS). Five cases (45%) presented LOH: three only at the FHIT locus (D3S1481), two at both 3S1481 and D3S1478 loci. All these patients with LOH of at least one 3p locus had good disease control and clinical benefit with Nivolumab: two had partial response and three had stable disease (SD). The remaining four cases were negative for LOH at the informative loci: three of them were clearly non-responsive to Nivolumab (confirmed progression disease) and one had SD. Conclusion: These preliminary results suggest that LOH at 3p loci correlates with good disease control with Nivolumab in advanced RCC patients. Our findings support the hypothesis that LOH at relevant genetic loci may provide a measure of mutational burden and of tumor immunogenicity and it could be used as predictive biomarker of response to CKI. Further analyses are planned with the aim to investigate other loci of key-TSG on 3p, 9p and 14p, evaluating the FAL index as potential more reliable predictive factor. References 1. Voss ME, Hellmann MD, Chen Y, Gold TM, Lambert CR, VanAllen E, Choueiri TK, Charen AS, Motzer RJ. Mutation burden and tumor neoantigens in RCC patients treated with Nivolumab: J Clin Oncol. 2016,34(2). (abstr 514). 2. Le DT, Uram JN, Wang H, Bartlett BR, Kemberling H, Eyring AD, Skora AD, Luber BS, Azad NS, Laheru D et al. PD-1 blockade in tumors with mismatchrepair deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(26):2509–20.

LOH as “the missing instability” potentially underlying the tumor immunogenicity: on the trails of a correlation between fractional allelic loss and response to nivolumab in renal cancer / Bersanelli, M; Gnetti, L; Azzoni, C; Bottarelli, L; Gasparro, D; Leonardi, F; Silini, Em; Buti, S. - In: JOURNAL OF TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE. - ISSN 1479-5876. - 15:2(2017). [10.1186/s12967-016-1095-2]

LOH as “the missing instability” potentially underlying the tumor immunogenicity: on the trails of a correlation between fractional allelic loss and response to nivolumab in renal cancer

Silini EM;Buti S
2017

Abstract

Background: Microsatellite instable (MSI) phenotype, as expression of mismatch-repair deficiency, characterizes tumors with high mutational load and consequently increased production of immunogenic neoantigens [1]. These characteristics have been correlated with susceptibility to immune checkpoint inhibitors (CKI) [2]. Nevertheless, MSI is rare (34%) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), although CKI are effective in a significant fraction of advanced tumors. We evaluated the hypothesis that loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of relevant tumor suppressor genes (TSG) might provide a measure of tumor immunogenicity, contributing as “the missing instability” to a high fractional allele loss (FAL) potentially underlying the rate of disease control obtained with CKI. We preliminary report the possible predictive value of LOH at different loci on 3p in patients with advanced RCC treated with the anti-PD-1 Nivolumab. Materials and methods: Only patients with assessable response according to the immune-related radiologic criteria were included. After DNA extraction from FFPE tissues of nephrectomy specimens, LOH study was performed by PCR for the microsatellite markers D3S1481 (3p14.2, FHIT gene) and D3S1478 (3p21.321.2). Non-informative (NI) cases due to homozygosity were subsequently tested for D3S1621 (3p21.2, LCTSGR1 gene). Non-informative cases for all loci were excluded. MSI was also assessed using two classical mononucleotide markers, BAT-25 and BAT-26. Results: Nine RCC cases evaluable for response were analyzed. All of them had microsatellite stable phenotype (MSS). Five cases (45%) presented LOH: three only at the FHIT locus (D3S1481), two at both 3S1481 and D3S1478 loci. All these patients with LOH of at least one 3p locus had good disease control and clinical benefit with Nivolumab: two had partial response and three had stable disease (SD). The remaining four cases were negative for LOH at the informative loci: three of them were clearly non-responsive to Nivolumab (confirmed progression disease) and one had SD. Conclusion: These preliminary results suggest that LOH at 3p loci correlates with good disease control with Nivolumab in advanced RCC patients. Our findings support the hypothesis that LOH at relevant genetic loci may provide a measure of mutational burden and of tumor immunogenicity and it could be used as predictive biomarker of response to CKI. Further analyses are planned with the aim to investigate other loci of key-TSG on 3p, 9p and 14p, evaluating the FAL index as potential more reliable predictive factor. References 1. Voss ME, Hellmann MD, Chen Y, Gold TM, Lambert CR, VanAllen E, Choueiri TK, Charen AS, Motzer RJ. Mutation burden and tumor neoantigens in RCC patients treated with Nivolumab: J Clin Oncol. 2016,34(2). (abstr 514). 2. Le DT, Uram JN, Wang H, Bartlett BR, Kemberling H, Eyring AD, Skora AD, Luber BS, Azad NS, Laheru D et al. PD-1 blockade in tumors with mismatchrepair deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(26):2509–20.
LOH as “the missing instability” potentially underlying the tumor immunogenicity: on the trails of a correlation between fractional allelic loss and response to nivolumab in renal cancer / Bersanelli, M; Gnetti, L; Azzoni, C; Bottarelli, L; Gasparro, D; Leonardi, F; Silini, Em; Buti, S. - In: JOURNAL OF TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE. - ISSN 1479-5876. - 15:2(2017). [10.1186/s12967-016-1095-2]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11381/2906893
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