Microsatellite instability (MSI) is the landmark feature of DNA mismatch repair deficiency, which can be found in 15–20% of all colorectal cancers (CRC). This specific set of tumors has been initially perceived as a niche for geneticists or gastroenterologists focused on inherited predispositions. However, over the years, MSI has established itself as a key biomarker for the diagnosis, then extending to forecasting the disease behavior and prognostication, including the prediction of responsiveness to immunotherapy and eventually to kinase inhibitors, and possibly even to specific biological drugs. Thanks to the contribution of the characterization of MSI tumors, researchers have first acknowledged that a strong lymphocytic reaction is associated with a good prognosis. This understanding supported the prognostic implications in terms of the low metastatic potential of MSI-CRC and has led to modifications in the indications for adjuvant treatment. Furthermore, with the emergence of immunotherapy, this strong biomarker of responsiveness has exemplified the capability of re-activating an effective immune control by removing the brakes of immune evasion. Lately, a subset of MSI-CRC emerged as the ideal target for kinase inhibitors. This therapeutic scenario implies a paradox in which appropriate treatments for advanced disease are effective in a set of tumors that seldom evolve towards metastases.

Defects in MMR Genes as a Seminal Example of Personalized Medicine: From Diagnosis to Therapy / Dal Buono, Arianna; Gaiani, Federica; Poliani, Laura; Correale, Carmen; Laghi, Luigi. - In: JOURNAL OF PERSONALIZED MEDICINE. - ISSN 2075-4426. - 11:12(2021), p. 1333. [10.3390/jpm11121333]

Defects in MMR Genes as a Seminal Example of Personalized Medicine: From Diagnosis to Therapy

Gaiani, Federica;Laghi, Luigi
2021

Abstract

Microsatellite instability (MSI) is the landmark feature of DNA mismatch repair deficiency, which can be found in 15–20% of all colorectal cancers (CRC). This specific set of tumors has been initially perceived as a niche for geneticists or gastroenterologists focused on inherited predispositions. However, over the years, MSI has established itself as a key biomarker for the diagnosis, then extending to forecasting the disease behavior and prognostication, including the prediction of responsiveness to immunotherapy and eventually to kinase inhibitors, and possibly even to specific biological drugs. Thanks to the contribution of the characterization of MSI tumors, researchers have first acknowledged that a strong lymphocytic reaction is associated with a good prognosis. This understanding supported the prognostic implications in terms of the low metastatic potential of MSI-CRC and has led to modifications in the indications for adjuvant treatment. Furthermore, with the emergence of immunotherapy, this strong biomarker of responsiveness has exemplified the capability of re-activating an effective immune control by removing the brakes of immune evasion. Lately, a subset of MSI-CRC emerged as the ideal target for kinase inhibitors. This therapeutic scenario implies a paradox in which appropriate treatments for advanced disease are effective in a set of tumors that seldom evolve towards metastases.
Defects in MMR Genes as a Seminal Example of Personalized Medicine: From Diagnosis to Therapy / Dal Buono, Arianna; Gaiani, Federica; Poliani, Laura; Correale, Carmen; Laghi, Luigi. - In: JOURNAL OF PERSONALIZED MEDICINE. - ISSN 2075-4426. - 11:12(2021), p. 1333. [10.3390/jpm11121333]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11381/2905911
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