Introduction: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) represents a frequent extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) deeply impacting both quality of life and overall prognosis. Areas covered: A literature search was performed including PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science. Many retrospective studies investigated the possible risk factors for RA-related ILD (RA-ILD), aiming to identify patients at risk. Among them, males, smokers, positivity of anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies have been associated with RA-ILD, such as some genetic haplotypes. Usual interstitial pneumonia is the histologic and radiologic pattern most frequently observed, followed by nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Since lung involvement can represent the RA onset, an early differential diagnosis with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia can be difficult or sometimes impossible. High-resolution computed tomography represents the gold standard for ILD diagnosis, while multidisciplinary discussion should be required to assess disease staging, severity and progression. Expert opinion: Management of RA-ILD patients is challenging due to the lack of evidence-based data regarding both assessment and treatment. Moreover, the high variability of clinical presentation and evolution makes it diﬃcult to establish the correct therapeutic strategy. Currently, multidisciplinary approach, including at least rheumatologists, pulmonologists, and radiologists, is desirable to define therapy and follow-up strategies.
Rheumatoid arthritis related interstitial lung disease / Manfredi, A.; Cassone, G.; Luppi, F.; Atienza-Mateo, B.; Cavazza, A.; Sverzellati, N.; Gonzalez-Gay, M. A.; Salvarani, C.; Sebastiani, M.. - In: EXPERT REVIEW OF CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY. - ISSN 1744-666X. - 17:5(2021), pp. 485-497. [10.1080/1744666X.2021.1905524]
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