Background:The cholinesterase inhibitor therapeutics (CI) approved for use in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are palliative for a limited time. Objective:To examine the outcome of AD patients with add-on therapy of the omega-3 fatty acid drink Smartfish. Methods:We performed a prospective study using Mini-Mental State Examination, amyloid-β (Aβ) phagocytosis blood assay, and RNA-seq of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 28 neurodegenerative patients who had failed their therapies, including 8 subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), 8 mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 2 AD dementia, 1 frontotemporal dementia (FTD), 2 vascular cognitive impairment, and 3 dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) patients. Results:MCI, FTD, and DLB patients patients volunteered for the addition of a ω-3 fatty acid drink Smartfish protected by anti-oxidants to failing CI therapy. On this therapy, all MCI patients improved in the first year energy transcripts, Aβ phagocytosis, cognition, and activities of daily living; in the long term, they remained in MCI status two to 4.5 years. All FTD and DLB patients rapidly progressed to dementia. On in vivo or in vitro ω-3 treatments, peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MCI patients upregulated energy enzymes for glycolysis and citric acid cycle, as well as the anti-inflammatory circadian genes CLOCK and ARNTL2. Conclusion:Add-on ω-3 therapy to CI may delay dementia in certain patients who had failed single CI therapy.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids Increase Amyloid-β Immunity, Energy, and Circadian Rhythm for Cognitive Protection of Alzheimer’s Disease Patients Beyond Cholinesterase Inhibitors / Fiala, M; Lau, Ycc; Aghajani, A; Bhargava, S; Aminpour, E; Kaczor-Urbanowicz, Ke; Mirzoyan, H; Ko, Mw; Morselli, M; Santana, J; Dang, J; Sayre, J; Paul, K; Pellegrini, M. - In: JOURNAL OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE. - ISSN 1387-2877. - (2020). [10.3233/JAD-200252]
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