The popularity of social networks (SNs), amplified by the ever-increasing use of smartphones, has intensified online cybercrimes. This trend has accelerated digital forensics through SNs. One of the areas that has received lots of attention is camera fingerprinting, through which each smartphone is uniquely characterized. Hence, in this paper, we compare classification-based methods to achieve smartphone identification (SI) and user profile linking (UPL) within the same or across different SNs, which can provide investigators with significant clues. We validate the proposed methods by two datasets, our dataset and the VISION dataset, both including original and shared images on the SN platforms such as Google Currents, Facebook, WhatsApp, and Telegram. The obtained results show that k-medoids achieves the best results compared with k-means, hierarchical approaches, and different models of convolutional neural network (CNN) in the classification of the images. The results show that k-medoids provides the values of F1-measure up to 0.91% for SI and UPL tasks. Moreover, the results prove the effectiveness of the methods which tackle the loss of image details through the compression process on the SNs, even for the images from the same model of smartphones. An important outcome of our work is presenting the inter-layer UPL task, which is more desirable in digital investigations as it can link user profiles on different SNs.
No Matter What Images You Share, You Can Probably Be Fingerprinted Anyway / Rouhi, Rahimeh; Bertini, Flavio; Montesi, Danilo. - In: JOURNAL OF IMAGING. - ISSN 2313-433X. - 7:2(2021), pp. 33-51. [10.3390/jimaging7020033]