Background: Treatment of oncogene-addicted non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been changed by the advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Albeit great benefits are achieved with target therapies, resistance invariably occurs and recourse to alternative treatments is unavoidable. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) role and the best setting of immunotherapy administration in oncogene-driven NSCLC are matter of debate. Methods: We performed a systematic literature review through PubMed, in order to gather all the available information regarding ICI activity and efficacy in oncogene-addicted NSCLC, from both prospective trials and retrospective series. A meta-analysis of objective response rate in different molecular subgroups was provided. Combinatorial strategies including ICIs and related toxicities were also recorded. Results: Eighty-seven studies were included in the qualitative analysis. EGFR mutation may be a biomarker of poor response to single-agent ICIs (7% of EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients achieved disease response in prospective trials), while encouraging results have been shown with combination strategies. KRASmutated disease (response rate, RR, 22%) has different clinical and pathological characteristics, and the coexistence of additional mutations (e.g., STK11 or TP53) influence tumor microenvironment and response to immunotherapy. Other molecular alterations have been marginally considered prospectively, and data from clinical practice are variegated, given poor effectiveness of ICIs in ALK-rearranged disease (RR 9.5%, pooling the data of retrospective studies) or some encouraging results in BRAF-(RR 25%, retrospective data) or MET-driven one (with estimations conditioned by the presence of both exon 14 skipping mutations and gene amplification in reported series). Conclusions: In oncogene-addicted NSCLC (with the exception of KRAS-mutated), ICIs are usually administered at the failure of other treatment options, but administering single-agent immunotherapy in later disease phases may limit its efficacy. With the progressive administration of TKIs and ICIs in early-stage disease, molecular characterization will become fundamental in this setting.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors in oncogene-addicted non-small cell lung cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis / Guaitoli, G.; Tiseo, M.; Di Maio, M.; Friboulet, L.; Facchinetti, F.. - In: TRANSLATIONAL LUNG CANCER RESEARCH. - ISSN 2218-6751. - 10:6(2021), pp. 2890-2916. [10.21037/tlcr-20-941]
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