This study evaluated the early modulation of the phenotype and cytokine secretion in swine immune cells treated with an engineered killer peptide (KP) based on an anti-idiotypic antibody functionally mimicking a yeast killer toxin. The influence of KP on specific immunity was investigated using porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) as ex vivo antigens. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy pigs were stimulated with KP and with a scramble peptide for 20 min, 1, 4 and 20 h or kept unstimulated. The cells were analyzed using flow cytometry and ELISA. The same time-periods were used for KP pre-incubation/co-incubation to determine the effect on virus-recalled interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) secreting cell (SC) frequencies and single cell IFN-γ productivity using ELISPOT. KP induced an early dose-dependent shift to pro-inflammatory CD172α+CD14+high monocytes and an increase of CD3+CD16+ natural killer (NK) T cells. KP triggered CD8α and CD8β expression on classical CD4−CD8αβ+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and double positive (DP) CD4+CD8α+ Th memory cells (CD4+CD8α+low CD8β+low). A fraction of DP cells also expressed high levels of CD8α. The two identified DP CD4+CD8α+high CD8β+low/+high CTL subsets were associated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and IFN-γ secretion. KP markedly boosted the reactivity and cross-reactivity of PRRSV type-1- and PCV2b-specific IFN-γ SC. The results indicate the efficacy of KP in stimulating Th1-biased immunomodulation and support studies of KP as an immunomodulator or vaccine adjuvant.
An engineered anti-idiotypic antibody-derived killer peptide (KP) early activates swine inflammatory monocytes, CD3+CD16+ natural killer T cells and CD4+CD8α+ double positive CD8β+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes associated with TNF-α and IFN-γ secretion / Ferrari, L.; Martelli, P.; Saleri, R.; De Angelis, E.; Ferrarini, G.; Cavalli, V.; Passeri, B.; Bazzoli, G.; Ogno, G.; Magliani, W.; Borghetti, P.. - In: COMPARATIVE IMMUNOLOGY, MICROBIOLOGY AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES. - ISSN 0147-9571. - 72(2020), pp. 1-15. [10.1016/j.cimid.2020.101523]
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