Amphiphilic calixarenes, functionalized with guanidinium groups, are used to decorate the outer surface of liposomes and significantly improve the cellular uptake of a cargo compared to plain liposomes. The improved uptake is elicited and mediated by the interaction between the cationic polar heads of the macrocycle units embedded in the liposome bilayer and anionic heparan-sulfate proteoglycans surrounding the exterior of cells.
Calixarene-decorated liposomes for intracellular cargo delivery / Morbioli, I.; Casnati, A.; Esko, J. D.; Tor, Y.; Sansone, F.. - In: ORGANIC & BIOMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY. - ISSN 1477-0520. - 19:30(2021), pp. 6598-6602. [10.1039/d1ob01055g]