Three-dimensional (3D) printing has gained popularity in tissue engineering and in the field of cartilage regeneration. This is due to its potential to generate scaffolds with spatial variation of cell distribution or mechanical properties, built with a variety of materials that can mimic complex tissue architecture. In the present study, horse articular chondrocytes were cultured for 2 and 4 weeks in 3D-printed chitosan (CH)-based scaffolds prepared with or without hyaluronic acid and in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) or platelet lysate (PL). These 3D culture systems were analyzed in terms of their capability to maintain chondrocyte differentiation in vitro. This was achieved by evaluating cell morphology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), gene expression of relevant cartilage markers (collagen type II, aggrecan, and Sox9), and specific markers of dedifferentiated phenotype (collagen type I, Runx2). The morphological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, and molecular results demonstrated that the 3D CH scaffold is sufficiently porous to be colonized by primary chondrocytes. Thereby, it provides an optimal environment for the colonization and synthetic activity of chondrocytes during a long culture period where a higher rate of dedifferentiation can be generally observed. Enrichment with hyaluronic acid provides an optimal microenvironment for a more stable maintenance of the chondrocyte phenotype. The use of 3D CH scaffolds causes a further increase in the gene expression of most relevant ECM components when PL is added as a substitute for FBS in the medium. This indicates that the latter system enables a better maintenance of the chondrocyte phenotype, thereby highlighting a fair balance between proliferation and differentiation.

Cultured Horse Articular Chondrocytes in 3D-Printed Chitosan Scaffold With Hyaluronic Acid and Platelet Lysate / De Angelis, E.; Saleri, R.; Martelli, P.; Elviri, L.; Bianchera, A.; Bergonzi, C.; Pirola, M.; Romeo, R.; Andrani, M.; Cavalli, V.; Conti, V.; Bettini, R.; Passeri, B.; Ravanetti, F.; Borghetti, P.. - In: FRONTIERS IN VETERINARY SCIENCE. - ISSN 2297-1769. - 8(2021), p. 671776.671776. [10.3389/fvets.2021.671776]

Cultured Horse Articular Chondrocytes in 3D-Printed Chitosan Scaffold With Hyaluronic Acid and Platelet Lysate

Saleri R.;Martelli P.;Elviri L.;Bianchera A.;Bergonzi C.;Pirola M.;Romeo R.;Andrani M.;Cavalli V.;Conti V.;Bettini R.;Passeri B.;Ravanetti F.;Borghetti P.
2021

Abstract

Three-dimensional (3D) printing has gained popularity in tissue engineering and in the field of cartilage regeneration. This is due to its potential to generate scaffolds with spatial variation of cell distribution or mechanical properties, built with a variety of materials that can mimic complex tissue architecture. In the present study, horse articular chondrocytes were cultured for 2 and 4 weeks in 3D-printed chitosan (CH)-based scaffolds prepared with or without hyaluronic acid and in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS) or platelet lysate (PL). These 3D culture systems were analyzed in terms of their capability to maintain chondrocyte differentiation in vitro. This was achieved by evaluating cell morphology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), gene expression of relevant cartilage markers (collagen type II, aggrecan, and Sox9), and specific markers of dedifferentiated phenotype (collagen type I, Runx2). The morphological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, and molecular results demonstrated that the 3D CH scaffold is sufficiently porous to be colonized by primary chondrocytes. Thereby, it provides an optimal environment for the colonization and synthetic activity of chondrocytes during a long culture period where a higher rate of dedifferentiation can be generally observed. Enrichment with hyaluronic acid provides an optimal microenvironment for a more stable maintenance of the chondrocyte phenotype. The use of 3D CH scaffolds causes a further increase in the gene expression of most relevant ECM components when PL is added as a substitute for FBS in the medium. This indicates that the latter system enables a better maintenance of the chondrocyte phenotype, thereby highlighting a fair balance between proliferation and differentiation.
Cultured Horse Articular Chondrocytes in 3D-Printed Chitosan Scaffold With Hyaluronic Acid and Platelet Lysate / De Angelis, E.; Saleri, R.; Martelli, P.; Elviri, L.; Bianchera, A.; Bergonzi, C.; Pirola, M.; Romeo, R.; Andrani, M.; Cavalli, V.; Conti, V.; Bettini, R.; Passeri, B.; Ravanetti, F.; Borghetti, P.. - In: FRONTIERS IN VETERINARY SCIENCE. - ISSN 2297-1769. - 8(2021), p. 671776.671776. [10.3389/fvets.2021.671776]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11381/2897786
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