Lung cancer screening (LCS) is gaining some interest worldwide after positive results from International trials. Unlike other screening practices, LCS is performed by an extremely sensitive test, namely low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) that can detect the smallest nodules in lung parenchyma. Up-to-date detection approaches, such as computer aided detection systems, have been increasingly employed for lung nodule automatic identification and are largely used in most LCS programs as a complementary tool to visual reading. Solid nodules of any size are represented in the vast majority of subjects undergoing LDCT. However, less than 1% of solid nodules will be diagnosed lung cancer. This fact calls for specific characterization of nodules to avoid false positives, overinvestigation, and reduce the risks associated with nodule work up. Recent research has been exploring the potential of artificial intelligence, including deep learning techniques, to enhance the accuracy of both detection and characterisation of lung nodule. Computer aided detection and diagnosis algorithms based on artificial intelligence approaches have demonstrated the ability to accurately detect and characterize parenchymal nodules, reducing the number of false positives, and to outperform some of the currently used risk models for prediction of lung cancer risk, potentially reducing the proportion of surveillance CT scans. These forthcoming approaches will eventually integrate a new reasoning for development of future guidelines, which are expected to evolve into precision and personalized stratification of lung cancer risk stratification by continuous fashion, as opposed to the current format with a limited number of risk classes within fixed thresholds of nodule size. This review aims to detail the standard of reference for optimal management of solid nodules by low-dose computed and its projection into the fine selection of candidates for work up.
Screen-detected solid nodules: from detection of nodule to structured reporting / Silva, M; Milanese, G; Ledda, Re; Pastorino, U; Sverzellati, N. - In: TRANSLATIONAL LUNG CANCER RESEARCH. - ISSN 2218-6751. - 10:5(2021), pp. 2335-2346. [10.21037/tlcr-20-296]