Living longer is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases, including impairments of the musculoskeletal and immune system as well as metabolic disorders and certain cancers, each of which can negatively affect the relationship between host and microbiota up to the occurrence of dysbiosis. On the other hand, lifestyle factors, including regular physical exercise and a healthy diet, can affect skeletal muscle and immune aging positively at all ages. Accordingly, health benefits could partly depend on the effect of such interventions that influence the biodiversity and functionality of intestinal microbiota. In the present review, we first discuss the physiological effects of aging on the gut microbiota, immune system, and skeletal muscle. Secondly, we describe human epidemiological evidence about the associations between physical activity and fitness and the gut microbiota composition in older adults. The third part highlights the relevance and restorative mechanisms of immune protection through physical activity and specific exercise interventions during aging. Fourth, we present important research findings on the effects of exercise and protein as well as other nutrients on skeletal muscle performance in older adults. Finally, we provide nutritional recommendations to prevent malnutrition and support healthy active aging with a focus on gut microbiota. Key nutrition‐related concerns include the need for adequate energy and protein intake for preventing low muscle mass and a higher demand for specific nutrients (e.g., dietary fiber, polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids) that can modify the composition, diversity, and metabolic capacity of the gut microbiota, and may thus provide a practical means of enhancing gut and systemic immune function.
The effects of lifestyle and diet on gut microbiota composition, inflammation and muscle performance in our aging society / Strasser, B.; Wolters, M.; Weyh, C.; Kruger, K.; Ticinesi, A.. - In: NUTRIENTS. - ISSN 2072-6643. - 13:6(2021), pp. 2045.1-2045.33. [10.3390/nu13062045]
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