Background: Cardiac structure and function change with age. The higher prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) with concentric remodeling is indicative of a typical geometric pattern of aging associated with a higher cardiovascular (CV) risk and diseases. The recent associations found between low left ventricular and skeletal mass in older patients with frailty and sarcopenia have raised great interest in investigating cardiac characteristics and determinants of left ventricular mass (LVM) in this population. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: We evaluated 100 sarcopenic and physically frail outpatients, 33 men (M), 67 women (F), aged ≥70 years (mean age 79 ± 5) and enrolled in the Parma site of European multicenter SPRINTT population. Results: All male and female participants showed LVH, assessed as indexed LVM to body surface area (LVM/BSA) (M = 128 ± 39 g/m2; F = 104 ± 26 g/m2), and were more prone to have concentric geometry, as demonstrated by relative wall thickness value (0.41 in both sexes). After backward regression analysis, including covariates such as age, sex, office or ABPM systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate, BSA, use of β blockers, ACE-inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, physical activity, hemoglobin level, and Mini Mental State examination - the most powerful determinants of LVM were clinical SBP (β = 1.51 ± 0.31, p = 0.0005), BSA (β = 165.9 ± 41.4, p = 0.0001), while less powerful determinants were 24 h, daily and nightly SBP (p = 0.02, p = 0.002, p = 0.004 respectively). Conclusions: Older sarcopenic and physically frail patients showed LVH with a tendency towards concentric geometry. The main determinant of LVM was SBP, highlighting the key role that hemodynamic condition plays in determining LVH in this population.
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