Background: Management of chronic low back pain (cLBP) is often multidisciplinary, involving a combination of treatments, including therapeutic exercises. Core stability exercises aim to improve pain and disability in cLBP increasing spinal stability, neuromuscular control, and preventing shear force that causes injury to the lumbar spine. The purpose of this study was to review the available evidence about the effectiveness in reducing pain and improving disability of core stability exercises for non-specific cLBP. (2) Methods: We perform a systematic research on common Medline databases: PubMed, Pedro, and Cochrane Library. Search results were limited to articles written in English and published between January 2005 and November 2020.The search provided a total of 420 articles. Forty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria and 371 articles were excluded. (3) Results: Core stability provides great therapeutic effects in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain reducing pain intensity, functional disability, and improving quality of life, core muscle activation, and thickness. Evidences suggest that core stability is more effective than rest or no/minimal intervention and combination with other types of exercise for cLBP have shown grater efficacy. (4) Conclusion: Core stability could be proposed in a comprehensive approach in cLBP, the combination with other modalities of therapeutic exercise should be promoted. Patient compliance is crucial to determine the efficacy of the intervention.
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