Engagement of cell surface adhesion receptors with extracellular constituents and with cellular counter-receptors is crucial for the extravasation of blood-borne neoplastic cells and their seeding at distant sites; however, the early events of tumor dissemination-le, the intravasation step(s)have been largely neglected. A role for the α4β7 integrin was hypothesized to explain the high leukemogenicity exhibited by one (NQ22) among several T-cell lymphomas studied. To clarify the mechanisms of early aggressivity, the behavior of highly and poorly leukemogenic cell lines were compared in vitro. Cocultivation of physically separated leukemic cells with resting endothelial cells resulted in the up-regulation of VCAM-1 expression. NQ22 cells expressed mRNA of different cytokines that up-regulate VCAM-1 and at higher levels than cells of a nonaggressive lymphoma, and they migrated more efficiently through an activated endothelial cell layer. With the use of neutralizing antibodies against interferon-γ, granulocyte macrophage colony- stimulating factor, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, it was determined that TNF-α is one of the soluble factors released by NQ22 cells involved in the up-regulation of VCAM-1. The finding that vascular cells within the early local growth were strongly positive for VCAM-1 indicated that NQ22 cells could activate endothelial cells also in vivo. Finally, cocultivation of preleukemic α4-NQ22 cells with TNF-α-activated endothelial cells induced the expression of α4 integrins on the former cells. Reciprocal up-regulation and engagement of α4/VCAM-1 pairs determined the sequential transmigration and intravasation steps, and similar mechanisms might affect the aggressivity of human T lymphoblastic lymphomas. (C) 2000 by The American Society of Hematology.
Bidirectional induction of the cognate receptor-ligand α4/VCAM-1 pair defines a novel mechanism of tumor intravasation / Bogetto, L.; Gabriele, E.; Cariati, R.; Dolcetli, R.; Spessotto, P.; Doglioni, C.; Boiocchi, M.; Perris, R.; Colombatti, A.. - In: BLOOD. - ISSN 0006-4971. - 95:7(2000), pp. 2397-2406. [10.1182/blood.v95.7.2397]
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