Diets rich in fruit and vegetables are associated with a decreased incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) due, in part, to the bioactive (poly)phenolic components and their microbiota-mediated metabolites. This study investigated how such compounds, derived from ingested raspberries in the gastrointestinal tract, may exert protective effects by reducing DNA damage. Ileal fluids collected pre- and post-consumption of 300 g of raspberries by ileostomists (n = 11) were subjected to 24 h ex vivo fermentation with fecal inoculum to simulate interaction with colonic microbiota. The impact of fermentation on (poly)phenolics in ileal fluid was determined and the bioactivity of ileal fluids pre- and post fermentation investigated. (Poly)phenolic compounds including sanguiin H-6, sanguiin H-10 and cyanidin-3-O-sophoroside decreased significantly during fermentation while, in contrast, microbial catabolites, including 3-(3′-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and benzoic acid increased significantly. The post-raspberry ileal fermentate from 9 of the 11 ileostomates significantly decreased DNA damage (~30%) in the CCD 841 CoN normal cell line using an oxidative challenge COMET assay. The raspberry ileal fermentates also modulated gene expression of the nuclear factor 2–antioxidant responsive element (Nrf2-ARE) pathway involved in oxidative stress cytoprotection, namely Nrf2, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone-1 and heme oxygenase-1. Four of the phenolic catabolites were assessed individually, each significantly reducing DNA damage from an oxidative challenge over a physiologically relevant 10–100 μM range. They also induced a differential pattern of expression of key genes in the Nrf2-ARE pathway in CCD 841 CoN cells. The study indicates that the colon-available raspberry (poly)phenols and their microbial-derived catabolites may play a role in protection against CRC in vivo.
Ex vivo fecal fermentation of human ileal fluid collected after raspberry consumption modifies (poly)phenolics and modulates genoprotective effects in colonic epithelial cells / Dobani, S.; Latimer, C.; McDougall, G. J.; Allwood, J. W.; Pereira-Caro, G.; Moreno-Rojas, J. M.; Ternan, N. G.; Pourshahidi, L. K.; Lawther, R.; Tuohy, K. M.; Del Rio, D.; O'Connor, G.; Rowland, I.; Almutairi, T. M.; Crozier, A.; Gill, C. I. R.. - In: REDOX BIOLOGY. - ISSN 2213-2317. - 40(2021), p. 101862. [10.1016/j.redox.2021.101862]
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