We presented the rationale for the use of thymosin alpha1 as prophylaxis of severe COVID-19 in cancer patients undergoing active treatment, constituting the background for the PROTHYMOS study, a prospective, multicenter, open-label, Phase II randomized study, currently in its start-up phase(Eudract no.2020-006020-13). We aim to offer new hope for this incurable disease, especially to frail patient population, such as patients with cancer. The hypothesis of an effective prophylactic approach to COVID-19 would have immediate clinical relevance, especially given the lack of curative approaches. Moreover, in the 'COVID-19 vaccine race era' both clinical and biological results coming from the PROTHYMOS trials could even support the rationale for future combinatorial approaches, trying to rise vaccine efficacy in frail individuals.
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