Purpose of the present study is to objectively evaluate the number of severe vascular complications, represented by skin necrosis and vision loss or impairment, following facial filler injection. The investigators implemented a review of the literature including articles published on PubMed database without limitation about year of publication, including all reports concerning skin necrosis and vision loss or impairment related to the injection of fillers for cosmetic uses. The search highlighted 45 articles and a total of 164 cases of skin necrosis and vision loss or impairment after injection of different substances. The injection site most frequently associated with complications was the nose (44.5%), followed by glabella (21%), nasolabial fold (15%), and forehead (10%). Results of the present study suggest that injectable filler can cause severe complications even in expertized hands. Treatments in the new defined "Dangerous triangle" must be carefully carried out. Despite our expectations, the highest rates of sever adverse events have been associated with autologous fat transfer practice.
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