The emerging role of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis in MM immune-microenvironment has been highlighted by several studies. However, discordant data have been reported on PD-1/PD-L1 distribution within the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment of patients with monoclonal gammopathies. In addition, the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 blockade as a therapeutic strategy to reverse myeloma immune suppression and inhibit myeloma cell survival still remains unknown. Recent data suggest that, among the potential mechanisms behind the lack of responsiveness or resistance to anti-PD-L1/PD-1 antibodies, the CD38 metabolic pathways involving the immune-suppressive factor, adenosine, could play an important role. This review summarizes the available data on PD-1/PD-L1 expression in patients with MM, reporting the main mechanisms of regulation of PD-1/PD-L1 axis. The possible link between the CD38 and PD-1/PD-L1 pathways is also reported, highlighting the rationale for the potential use of a combined therapeutic approach with CD38 blocking agents and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies in order to improve their anti-tumoral effect in MM patients.
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo su rivista|