Background: Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) mediates pleiotropic functions encompassing cell proliferation, survival, and migration, which become collectively de-regulated in cancer. Information on whether S1PR2 participates in colorectal carcinogenesis/cancer is scanty, and we set out to fill the gap. Methods: We screened expression changes of S1PR2 in human CRC and matched normal mucosa specimens [N = 76]. We compared CRC arising in inflammation-driven and genetically engineered models in wild-type (S1PR2+/+) and S1PR2 deficient (S1PR2−/−) mice. We reconstituted S1PR2 expression in RKO cells and assessed their growth in xenografts. Functionally, we mimicked the ablation of S1PR2 in normal mucosa by treating S1PR2+/+ organoids with JTE013 and characterized intestinal epithelial stem cells isolated from S1PR2−/−Lgr5-EGFP- mice. Results: S1PR2 expression was lost in 33% of CRC; in 55%, it was significantly decreased, only 12% retaining expression comparable to normal mucosa. Both colitis-induced and genetic Apc+/min mouse models of CRC showed a higher incidence in size and number of carcinomas and/or high-grade adenomas, with increased cell proliferation in S1PR2−/− mice compared to S1PR2+/+ controls. Loss of S1PR2 impaired mucosal regeneration, ultimately promoting the expansion of intestinal stem cells. Whereas its overexpression attenuated cell cycle progression, it reduced the phosphorylation of AKT and augmented the levels of PTEN. Conclusions: In normal colonic crypts, S1PR2 gains expression along with intestinal epithelial cells differentiation, but not in intestinal stem cells, and contrasts intestinal tumorigenesis by promoting epithelial differentiation, preventing the expansion of stem cells and braking their malignant transformation. Targeting of S1PR2 may be of therapeutic benefit for CRC expressing high Lgr5. Graphical Abstract. Schematic drawing of the role of S1PR2 in normal mucosa and colorectal cancer. In the normal mucosa, S1PR2 is highly expressed by differentiated cells at the upper region of both colon and intestinal crypts (S1PR2 ON), but not by the undifferentiated stem cell at the base of the crypts (S1PR2 OFF), in which acts as a negative proliferative regulator promoting epithelial differentiation. Its loss leads to the expansion of stem cells and reduced levels of PTEN and Axin-2, two negative regulators respectively of PI3K/AKT and Wnt signaling that control β-catenin signaling. The translocation of β-catenin into the nucleus promotes the transcription of target genes involved in the proliferation and malignant transformation. Thereby, S1PR2 works in the intestine as a tumor suppressor: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Unveiling role of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 as a brake of epithelial stem cell proliferation and a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer / Petti, L.; Rizzo, G.; Rubbino, F.; Elangovan, S.; Colombo, P.; Restelli, S.; Piontini, A.; Arena, V.; Carvello, M.; Romano, B.; Cavalleri, T.; Anselmo, A.; Ungaro, F.; D'Alessio, S.; Spinelli, A.; Stifter, S.; Grizzi, F.; Sgambato, A.; Danese, S.; Laghi, L.; Malesci, A.; Vetrano, S.. - In: JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH. - ISSN 1756-9966. - 39:1(2020), p. 253. [10.1186/s13046-020-01740-6]

Unveiling role of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 as a brake of epithelial stem cell proliferation and a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer

Laghi L.;
2020-01-01

Abstract

Background: Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) mediates pleiotropic functions encompassing cell proliferation, survival, and migration, which become collectively de-regulated in cancer. Information on whether S1PR2 participates in colorectal carcinogenesis/cancer is scanty, and we set out to fill the gap. Methods: We screened expression changes of S1PR2 in human CRC and matched normal mucosa specimens [N = 76]. We compared CRC arising in inflammation-driven and genetically engineered models in wild-type (S1PR2+/+) and S1PR2 deficient (S1PR2−/−) mice. We reconstituted S1PR2 expression in RKO cells and assessed their growth in xenografts. Functionally, we mimicked the ablation of S1PR2 in normal mucosa by treating S1PR2+/+ organoids with JTE013 and characterized intestinal epithelial stem cells isolated from S1PR2−/−Lgr5-EGFP- mice. Results: S1PR2 expression was lost in 33% of CRC; in 55%, it was significantly decreased, only 12% retaining expression comparable to normal mucosa. Both colitis-induced and genetic Apc+/min mouse models of CRC showed a higher incidence in size and number of carcinomas and/or high-grade adenomas, with increased cell proliferation in S1PR2−/− mice compared to S1PR2+/+ controls. Loss of S1PR2 impaired mucosal regeneration, ultimately promoting the expansion of intestinal stem cells. Whereas its overexpression attenuated cell cycle progression, it reduced the phosphorylation of AKT and augmented the levels of PTEN. Conclusions: In normal colonic crypts, S1PR2 gains expression along with intestinal epithelial cells differentiation, but not in intestinal stem cells, and contrasts intestinal tumorigenesis by promoting epithelial differentiation, preventing the expansion of stem cells and braking their malignant transformation. Targeting of S1PR2 may be of therapeutic benefit for CRC expressing high Lgr5. Graphical Abstract. Schematic drawing of the role of S1PR2 in normal mucosa and colorectal cancer. In the normal mucosa, S1PR2 is highly expressed by differentiated cells at the upper region of both colon and intestinal crypts (S1PR2 ON), but not by the undifferentiated stem cell at the base of the crypts (S1PR2 OFF), in which acts as a negative proliferative regulator promoting epithelial differentiation. Its loss leads to the expansion of stem cells and reduced levels of PTEN and Axin-2, two negative regulators respectively of PI3K/AKT and Wnt signaling that control β-catenin signaling. The translocation of β-catenin into the nucleus promotes the transcription of target genes involved in the proliferation and malignant transformation. Thereby, S1PR2 works in the intestine as a tumor suppressor: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]
2020
Unveiling role of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 as a brake of epithelial stem cell proliferation and a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer / Petti, L.; Rizzo, G.; Rubbino, F.; Elangovan, S.; Colombo, P.; Restelli, S.; Piontini, A.; Arena, V.; Carvello, M.; Romano, B.; Cavalleri, T.; Anselmo, A.; Ungaro, F.; D'Alessio, S.; Spinelli, A.; Stifter, S.; Grizzi, F.; Sgambato, A.; Danese, S.; Laghi, L.; Malesci, A.; Vetrano, S.. - In: JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL & CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH. - ISSN 1756-9966. - 39:1(2020), p. 253. [10.1186/s13046-020-01740-6]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11381/2886676
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