Lactococcus lactis is the most widely exploited microorganism in global dairy fermentations. Lactococcal strains are described as typically harboring a number of prophages in their chromosomes. The presence of such prophages may provide both advantages and disadvantages to the carrying host. Here, we describe the deliberate generation of three distinct lysogens of the model lactococcal strain 3107 and the impact of additional prophage carriage on phage-resistance and anti-microbial susceptibility. Lysogen-specific responses were observed, highlighting the unique relationship and impact of each lysogenic phage on its host. Both homologous and heterologous phage-resistance profiles were observed, highlighting the presence of possible prophage-encoded phage-resistance factors. Superinfection exclusion was among the most notable causes of heterologous phage-resistance profiles with resistance observed against members of the Skunavirus, P335, P087, and 949 lactococcal phage groups. Through these analyses, it is now possible to identify phages that may pursue similar DNA injection pathways. The generated lysogenic strains exhibited increased sensitivity to the antimicrobial compounds, nisin and lysozyme, relative to the parent strain, although it is noteworthy that the degree of sensitivity was specific to the individual (pro)phages. Overall, the findings highlight the unique impact of each prophage on a given strain and the requirement for strain-level analysis when considering the implications of lysogeny.
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