Regenerative medicine aims to restore the normal function of diseased or damaged cells, tissues, and organs using a set of different approaches, including cell-based therapies. In the veterinary field, regenerative medicine is strongly related to the use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), which belong to the body repair system and are defined as multipotent progenitor cells, able to self-replicate and to differentiate into different cell types. This review aims to take stock of what is known about the MSCs and their use in the veterinary medicine focusing on clinical reports on dogs and horses in musculoskeletal diseases, a research field extensively reported in the literature data. Finally, a perspective regarding the use of the secretome and/or extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the veterinary field to replace parental MSCs is provided. The pharmaceuticalization of EVs is wished due to the realization of a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP product suitable for clinical trials.
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