Uveitis is a complex intraocular inflammatory disease resulting from several aetiological entities that are linked to geographical, genetic and socioeconomic variables. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the distribution patterns of uveitis as seen in a nationwide referral centre at a community hospital in Reggio Emilia, northern Italy, and to compare our data with those reported in previously published international series. The records of 1064 patients of Italian origin with uveitis referred to the Immunology Ocular Unit of the Arcispedale S. Maria Nuova Hospital in Reggio Emilia from 2002 to 2008 were classified and analysed. Data regarding sex, race, residence, age at presentation and at onset of uveitis, ocular involvement, clinical characteristics, ocular condition, and systemic disease associations were collected. The mean age at onset of uveitis was 41 years (range: 1-94), and the male-to-female ratio was 1:1.2. Anterior uveitis was the most common location (51.2%), followed by posterior uveitis (23.4%), panuveitis (19.6%), and intermediate uveitis (5.8%). The most frequent entities included Fuchs uveitis (22.7%), herpetic anterior uveitis (9.9%), toxoplasmosis (6.9%), HLA-B27-associated anterior uveitis (5.3%), and Behçet's disease (5.3%). The distribution we observed of the most common disease entities conformed to previous international series. In our series, Fuchs uveitis represented the most common diagnosis (22.7%, 45% of anterior uveitis). The high percentage of specific diagnosis (74%) can be explained by the establishment of new disease categories over time as well as by a systematic multi-disciplinary diagnostic approach. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
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