Artificial intelligence (AI) is a field of science and engineering concerned with the computational understanding of what is commonly called intelligent behavior. AI is extremely useful in many human activities including medicine. The aim of our narrative review is to show the potential role of AI in fighting antimicrobial resistance in pediatric patients. We searched for PubMed articles published from April 2010 to April 2020 containing the keywords “artificial intelligence”, “machine learning”, “antimicrobial resistance”, “antimicrobial stewardship”, “pediatric”, and “children”, and we described the different strategies for the application of AI in these fields. Literature analysis showed that the applications of AI in health care are potentially endless, contributing to a reduction in the development time of new antimicrobial agents, greater diagnostic and therapeutic appropriateness, and, simultaneously, a reduction in costs. Most of the proposed AI solutions for medicine are not intended to replace the doctor’s opinion or expertise, but to provide a useful tool for easing their work. Considering pediatric infectious diseases, AI could play a primary role in fighting antibiotic resistance. In the pediatric field, a greater willingness to invest in this field could help antimicrobial stewardship reach levels of effectiveness that were unthinkable a few years ago.
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