This article provides a brief review of work A. F. Losev's (1893-1988) at State Institute of musical science (GIMN) and State Academy of Artistic Sciences (GAKhN) in the 1920s. A special attention is given to previously unknown A. F. Losev's scientific papers 1924-1926 years ("Aesthetics and Mathematics", "About Concepts of Rhythm and Meter", "About the 2-nd Issue of collection De musica") and subsequent discussions in GAKhN, recorded in the minutes of meetings stored in the Russian State Archive of Literature and Arts. Thanks to this new materials we can describe Losev's relation to contemporary musicology and its leading representatives. The article shows that Losev's typical desire to demonstrate that aesthetics could and should be made into a rigorous scientific discipline was the opposite to the dominant formalistic, psychological and sociologic tendencies in musicology of this period. The article raises the question about Losev's interpretation of the romantic writer V. F. Odoevsky and also about the interaction between philosophical and aesthetic discussions of the 1920s and Losev's philosophical and musical fiction of the 1930s (novel "Woman-the thinker, ", stories "Meeting", "Tchaikovsky's Trio", "Meteor").
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