The present study describes the first report of Dirofilaria repens infection with the presence of both microfilariae and adult nematodes in a cat from Northeastern Romania. Briefly, a 5-year-old male mixed breed cat was presented to a veterinary clinic in Iasi (Romania), for neutering, in early February 2020. During the surgery, two whitish worms were removed from the internal part of the scrotum. Two adult nematodes, one female and one male, were identified, on the basis of morphological features, as D. repens with whitish, cylindrical bodies, measuring 12.5 cm and 6.5 cm in length, respectively. At histology, the female nematode showed two cavitated structures containing myriads of variably arranged microfilariae. The male had a transversal diameter of 350 μm, a 10 μm thick cuticle and a ridge-period of 10 Μm. multiplex PCR confirmed the diagnosis of D. repens from both nematodes. The Knott's test revealed the presence of microfilariae of D. repens. Routine biochemistry panel was within range with one exception, urea serum level slightly increased. The haematology results revealed an increased number of neutrophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils. The cat had an infection with Otodectes cynotis as well. The cat was discharged with the following therapy recommended: oral doxycycline (10 mg/kg) for 30 days and topical moxidectin, monthly doses. After six months, the Knott's test gave negative results. Further studies should include new insights of D. repens infection in cats concerning its epidemiology, diagnosis and control.
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