Intracoronary injection of bone marrow stem cells seems to improve left ventricular (LV) function after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) could improve myocardial function and perfusion noninvasively through mobilization of stem cells into peripheral blood, although previous clinical trials have produced controversial results. Forty-one patients with large anterior wall AMI at high risk of unfavorable remodeling were randomized 1:2 to G-CSF (10 microg/kg/day for 5 days) or to conventional therapy. All patients underwent successful primary or rescue percutaneous coronary intervention. LV function was assessed by echocardiography before G-CSF administration, > or =5 days after AMI, and at follow-up. Only patients with a LV ejection fraction <50% at baseline were enrolled in the study. After a median follow-up of 5 months (range 4 to 6) patients treated with G-CSF exhibited improvement in LV ejection fraction, from 40 +/- 6% to 45 +/- 6% (p = 0.068) in the absence of LV dilation (LV end-diastolic volume from 147 +/- 33 to 144 +/- 46 ml at follow-up, p = 0.77). In contrast, patients treated conventionally exhibited significant LV dilation (LV end-diastolic volume from 141 +/- 35 to 168 +/- 41 ml, p = 0.002) in the absence of change in LV ejection fraction (from 38 +/- 6% to 38 +/- 8%, p = 0.95). However, when comparing patients treated with G-CSF with controls, variations in these parameters were significantly different at 2-way analysis of variance (p = 0.04 for LV end-diastolic volume, p = 0.02 for LV ejection fraction). In conclusion, G-CSF prevents unfavorable LV remodeling and improves LV function in patients with large anterior wall AMI and decreased LV ejection fraction after successful percutaneous coronary intervention.
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