Neoatherosclerosis is a form of accelerated atherosclerosis that occurs within stented segments of the coronary vessel late or very late after drug-eluting stent (DES+) implantation via percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This proliferation of neointima with a formation of new atheromatous plaque within stent struts lacking re-endothelialization can provoke thrombotic occlusion and lead to catastrophic acute coronary events. Knowing that coronary artery disease is the leading single cause of mortality worldwide and that there is a constant trend of increase in PCI procedures, it is reasonable to conclude that late thrombotic events and neoatherosclerosis post-PCI remain an important therapeutic challenge. For these reasons, early identification of patients at risk through the means of advanced imaging methods or preventive solutions available through novel technological solutions in DES design that target proinflammatory pathways and enable optimized arterial healing are central strategies in prevention and treatment of in-stent neoatherosclerosis and thrombosis. Due to this, pre-clinical studies performed on animal models are crucial building blocks that enable the objective and scientific assessment of innovative technological and therapeutic solutions before they are introduced to early stages of human clinical trials. A comparative medicine approach allows designing and executing experiments in animal models with a high degree of similarity with human coronary anatomy possibly promising the translation of encouraging findings to human clinical studies. The aim of this review is to provide contemporary insights on the pathophysiology of neoatherosclerosis and in-stent thrombosis and emergence of novel biomedical and technological solutions used to counter them.
|Appare nelle tipologie:||1.1 Articolo su rivista|