Permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) represents a rare complication after cardiac surgery, with no uniform agreement on timing and no information on follow-up. A multicenter retrospective study was designed to assess pacemaker dependency (PMD) and longterm mortality after cardiac surgery procedures. Between 2004 and 2016, PPI-patients from 18 centers were followed. Time-to-event data were evaluated with semiparametric regression Cox models and semiparametric Fine and Gray model for competing risk framework. Of 859 (0.90%) PPI-patients, 30% were pacemaker independent (PMI) at 6 months. PMD showed higher mortality compared with PMI (10-year survival 80.1% § 2.6% and 92.2% +2.4%, respectively, log-rank p-value < 0.001) with an unadjusted hazard ratio for death of 0.36 (95% CI 0.20 to 0.65, p< 0.001 favoring PMI) and an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.19 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.45, p< 0.001 with PMD as reference). Crude cumulative incidence function of restored PMI rhythm at follow-up at 6 months, 1 year and 12 years were 30.5% (95% CI 27.3% to 33.7%), 33.7% (95% CI 30.4% to 36.9%) and 37.2% (95% CI 33.8% to 40.6%) respectively. PMI was favored by preoperative sinus rhythm with normal conduction (SR) (HR 2.37, 95% CI 1.65 to 3.40, p< 0.001), whereas coronary artery bypass grafting and aortic valve replacement were independently associated with PMD (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.88, p = 0.006 and HR 0.807, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.99, p = 0.047 respectively). Time-to-implantation was not associated with increased rate of PMI. Although 30% of PPI-patients are PMI after 6 months, PMD is associated with higher mortality at long term.
Relation of Prolonged Pacemaker Dependency After Cardiac Surgery to Mortality / Lorusso, R; Ravaux, Jm; Bidar, E; Barili, F; Vernooy, K; Mauro, Md; Miceli, A; Parolari, A; Daprati, A; Myasoedova, V; Alamanni, F; De Vincentiis, C; Aime', E; Nicolini, F; Gonzi, G; Colli, A; Gerosa, G; De Bonis, M; Paglino, G; Bella, Pd; Dato, Ga; Varone, E; Sponga, S; Toniolo, M; Proclemer, A; Livi, U; Mariscalco, G; Cottini, M; Beghi, C; Scrofani, R; Foresti, D; Tritto, Fp; Gregorio, R; Villa, E; Troise, G; Pecora, D; Serraino, F; Jiritano, F; Rosato, F; Grasso, E; Paparella, D; Amorese, L; Vizzardi, E; Solinas, M; Arena, G; Maselli, D; Simon, C; Glauber, M. - In: THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY. - ISSN 0002-9149. - 138(2021), pp. 66-71. [10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.10.010]
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