Introduction: Associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) has been described to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but burdened, in its pioneering phase, by high morbidity and mortality. With the advent of minimally invasive (MI) techniques in liver surgery, surgical complications, including posthepatectomy liver failure (PHLF), have been dramatically reduced. The primary endpoint of this study was to compare the short-term outcomes of MI-versus open-ALPPS for HCC, with specific focus on PHLF. Methods: Data of patients submitted to ALPPS for HCC between 2012 and 2020 were identified from the ALPPS Italian Registry. Patients receiving an MI Stage 1 (MI-ALPPS) constituted the study group, whereas the patients who received an open Stage 1 (open-ALPPS) constituted the control group. Results: Sixty-six patients were enrolled from 12 Italian centers. Stage 1 of ALPPS was performed in 14 patients using an MI approach (21.2%). MI-ALPPS patients were discharged after Stage 1 at a significantly higher rate compared with open-ALPPS (78.6% versus 9.6%, P < .001). After Stage 2, major morbidity after MI-ALPPS was 8.3% compared with 28.6% reported after open-ALPPS. Mortality was nil after MI-ALPPS. Length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in MI-ALPPS (12 days versus 22 days, P < .001). Univariate logistic regression analysis (Firth method) found that both MI-ALPPS (odds ratio [OR] = 0.05, P = .040) and partial parenchymal transection (OR = 0.04, P = .027) were protective against PHLF. Conclusion: This national multicenter study showed that a less invasive approach to ALPPS first stage was associated with a lower overall risk of PHLF.
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