Acute bone and joint infections (BJIs) in children may clinically occur as osteomyelitis (OM) or septic arthritis (SA). In clinical practice, one-third of cases present a combination of both conditions. BJIs are usually caused by the haematogenous dissemination of septic emboli carried to the terminal blood vessels of bone and joints from distant infectious processes during transient bacteraemia. Early diagnosis is the cornerstone for the successful management of BJI, but it is still a challenge for paediatricians, particularly due to its nonspecific clinical presentation and to the poor specificity of the laboratory and imaging first-line tests that are available in emergency departments. Moreover, microbiological diagnosis is often difficult to achieve with common blood cultures, and further investigations require invasive procedures. The aim of this narrative review is to provide the most recent evidence-based recommendations on appropriate antinfective therapy in BJI in children. We conducted a review of recent literature by examining the MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online) database using the search engines PubMed and Google Scholar. The keywords used were “osteomyelitis”, OR “bone infection”, OR “septic arthritis”, AND “p(a)ediatric” OR “children”. When BJI diagnosis is clinically suspected or radiologically confirmed, empiric antibiotic therapy should be started as soon as possible. The choice of empiric antimicrobial therapy is based on the most likely causative pathogens according to patient age, immunisation status, underlying disease, and other clinical and epidemiological considerations, including the local prevalence of virulent pathogens, antibiotic bioavailability and bone penetration. Empiric antibiotic treatment consists of a short intravenous cycle based on anti-staphylococcal penicillin or a cephalosporin in children aged over 3 months with the addition of gentamicin in infants aged under 3 months. An oral regimen may be an option depending on the bioavailability of antibiotic chosen and clinical and laboratory data. Strict clinical and laboratory follow-up should be scheduled for the following 3–5 weeks. Further studies on the optimal therapeutic approach are needed in order to understand the best first-line regimen, the utility of biomarkers for the definition of therapy duration and treatment of complications.

Update on acute bone and joint infections in paediatrics: A narrative review on the most recent evidence-based recommendations and appropriate antinfective therapy / Autore, G.; Bernardi, L.; Esposito, S.. - In: ANTIBIOTICS. - ISSN 2079-6382. - 9:8(2020), pp. 1-13. [10.3390/antibiotics9080486]

Update on acute bone and joint infections in paediatrics: A narrative review on the most recent evidence-based recommendations and appropriate antinfective therapy

Autore G.;Bernardi L.;Esposito S.
2020-01-01

Abstract

Acute bone and joint infections (BJIs) in children may clinically occur as osteomyelitis (OM) or septic arthritis (SA). In clinical practice, one-third of cases present a combination of both conditions. BJIs are usually caused by the haematogenous dissemination of septic emboli carried to the terminal blood vessels of bone and joints from distant infectious processes during transient bacteraemia. Early diagnosis is the cornerstone for the successful management of BJI, but it is still a challenge for paediatricians, particularly due to its nonspecific clinical presentation and to the poor specificity of the laboratory and imaging first-line tests that are available in emergency departments. Moreover, microbiological diagnosis is often difficult to achieve with common blood cultures, and further investigations require invasive procedures. The aim of this narrative review is to provide the most recent evidence-based recommendations on appropriate antinfective therapy in BJI in children. We conducted a review of recent literature by examining the MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online) database using the search engines PubMed and Google Scholar. The keywords used were “osteomyelitis”, OR “bone infection”, OR “septic arthritis”, AND “p(a)ediatric” OR “children”. When BJI diagnosis is clinically suspected or radiologically confirmed, empiric antibiotic therapy should be started as soon as possible. The choice of empiric antimicrobial therapy is based on the most likely causative pathogens according to patient age, immunisation status, underlying disease, and other clinical and epidemiological considerations, including the local prevalence of virulent pathogens, antibiotic bioavailability and bone penetration. Empiric antibiotic treatment consists of a short intravenous cycle based on anti-staphylococcal penicillin or a cephalosporin in children aged over 3 months with the addition of gentamicin in infants aged under 3 months. An oral regimen may be an option depending on the bioavailability of antibiotic chosen and clinical and laboratory data. Strict clinical and laboratory follow-up should be scheduled for the following 3–5 weeks. Further studies on the optimal therapeutic approach are needed in order to understand the best first-line regimen, the utility of biomarkers for the definition of therapy duration and treatment of complications.
2020
Update on acute bone and joint infections in paediatrics: A narrative review on the most recent evidence-based recommendations and appropriate antinfective therapy / Autore, G.; Bernardi, L.; Esposito, S.. - In: ANTIBIOTICS. - ISSN 2079-6382. - 9:8(2020), pp. 1-13. [10.3390/antibiotics9080486]
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
Update on Acute Bone and Joint Infections in Paediatrics.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Versione (PDF) editoriale
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 252.88 kB
Formato Adobe PDF
252.88 kB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11381/2881446
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 15
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 11
social impact