Cystic fibrosis (CF), the most common autosomal-recessive genetic disease in the Caucasian population, is characterized by frequent respiratory infections and progressive lung disease. Fungal species are commonly found in patients with CF, and among them, Aspergillus fumigatus is the most frequently isolated. While bacteria, particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa, have a well-established negative effect on CF lung disease, the impact of fungal infections remains unclear. In patients with CF, inhalation of Aspergillus conidia can cause allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), a Th2-mediated lung disease that can contribute to disease progression. Clinical features, diagnostic criteria and treatment of ABPA are still a matter of debate. Given the consequences of a late ABPA diagnosis or the risk of ABPA overdiagnosis, it is imperative that the diagnostic criteria guidelines are reviewed and standardized. Along with traditional criteria, radiological features are emerging as tools for further classification as well as novel immunological tests. Corticosteroids, itraconazole and voriconazole continue to be the bedrock of ABPA therapy, but other molecules, such as posaconazole, vitamin D, recombinant INF-γ and Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) modulators, have been showing positive results. However, few studies have been conducted recruiting CF patients, and more research is needed to improve the prevention and the classification of clinical manifestations as well as to personalize treatment. Early recognition and early treatment of fungal infections may be fundamental to prevent progression of CF disease. The aim of this narrative review is to give an update on ABPA in children with CF.
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in children with cystic fibrosis: An update on the newest diagnostic tools and therapeutic approaches / Lattanzi, C.; Messina, G.; Fainardi, V.; Tripodi, M. C.; Pisi, G.; Esposito, S.. - In: PATHOGENS. - ISSN 2076-0817. - 9:9(2020), pp. 1-13. [10.3390/pathogens9090716]
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