In the last decades, significant progresses have been reached in the management of atopic diseases in childhood. Several approaches have been proposed in patients affected by moderate-to-severe atopic diseases. Severe asthma and atopic dermatitis are poorly known with different underlying phenotypes and endotypes, and they may require further cares with biological therapies. Omalizumab, anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, is effective and safe in patients with atopic diseases, especially uncontrolled asthma and chronic urticaria. Anti-IL-5 drugs including mepolizumab, reslizumab and benralizumab are effective in resistant eosinophilic asthma. In patients with uncontrolled atopic dermatitis, dupilumab is of benefit. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) represents the only treatment attaining immunologic tolerance and sustaining improvement in symptoms. Both subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapies are characterized by a short-term and a long-term efficacy, as demonstrated by a reduced immunologic reactivity after discontinuation. Component-resolved diagnosis has been found an essential diagnostic tool potentially able to increase the efficacy of AIT in polysensitized children, establishing a precise AIT prescription for patient genuinely sensitized to allergens. The future care of allergic diseases in childhood requires an individualized approach to achieve a patient-tailored therapy for difficult-to-treat atopic diseases.
Allergen-specific immunotherapy, novel drugs and biologicals: hopes from the difficult-to-treat allergic child / Mastrorilli, C.; Santoro, A.; Caffarelli, C.. - In: AEROBIOLOGIA. - ISSN 0393-5965. - 36:1(2020), pp. 95-98. [10.1007/s10453-019-09573-3]
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