Molds of the genus Alternaria produce several mycotoxins, some of which may pose a threat for health due to their genotoxicity. Due to the lack of adequate toxicological and occurrence data, they are currently not regulated. Interactions between mycotoxins, gut microbiota and food constituents might occur after food ingestion, modifying the bioavailability and, therefore, overall toxicity of mycotoxins. The present work aimed to investigate the impact of in vitro short-term fecal incubation on the in vitro DNA-damaging effects exerted by 5 µg/mL of an Alternaria alternata extract, containing, among others, 15 nM alternariol, 12 nM alternariol monomethyl ether, 241 nM altertoxin II and 301 nM stemphyltoxin III, all of which are known as genotoxic. The involvement of microorganisms, undigested food constituents and soluble substances of human fecal samples in modifying the composition and the genotoxicity of the extract was investigated through the application of LC-MS/MS analysis and comet assays in HT-29 cells. Results showed that the potential of the mycotoxins to induce DNA strand breaks was almost completely quenched, even before anaerobic incubation, by contact with the different fractions of the fecal samples, while the potency to induce formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites was only slightly reduced. These effects were in line with a reduction of mycotoxin concentrations found in samples analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Although a direct correlation between the metabolic activity of the gut microbiota and modifications in mycotoxin contents was not clearly observed, adsorptive phenomena to bacterial cells and to undigested food constituents might explain the observed modifications.
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