The chemsex or slamsex phenomenon has attracted attention worldwide, with concerns also expressed by health professionals for the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Mephedrone or 4-methylmethcathinone, a substituted cathinone homolog of ephedrine, is one of the most popular substances used as a cheaper alternative to other traditional drugs. Fatal cases of chemsex are still rare. We present here the first case-report to the best of our knowledge of a mephedrone-related acute toxicity case in Parma (Italy) detected and quantitated in biological specimens (2.0 mg/L in urine sample, 1.1 mg/L in bile and 1.0 mg/L in central blood while 0.8 mg/L in peripheral blood). None of the other most common drugs of abuse could be detected. Autopsy findings such as facies edematosa, oedema and polyvisceral congestion, interstitial petechiae are compatible elements with a death from acute cardio-respiratory failure, with peri-mortem agony of few minutes in which the cardiac hypertrophy, the moderate aortocoronary sclerosis and mephedrone injection have played a substantial role in the evaluation of the final cause due to an accidental acute intoxication with mephedrone.
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