The design of 3D complex structures enables new correlation studies between the engineering parameters and the biological activity. Moreover, additive manufacturing technology could revolutionise the personalised medical pre-operative management due to its possibility to interplay with computer tomography. Here we present a method based on rapid freeze prototyping (RFP) 3D printer, reconstruction cutting, nano dry formulation, fast freeze gelation, disinfection and partial processes for the 5D digital models functionalisation. We elaborated the high-resolution computer tomography scan derived from a complex human peripheral artery and we reconstructed the 3D model of the vessel in order to obtain and verify the additive manufacturing processes. Then, based on the drug-eluting balloon selected for the percutaneous intervention, we reconstructed the biocompatible eluting-freeform coating containing 40 nm fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) by means of RFP printer and we tested the in-vivo feasibility. We introduced the NPs-loaded 5D device in a rat's vena cava. The coating dissolved in a few minutes releasing NPs which were rapidly absorbed in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) in-vitro. We developed 5D high-resolution self-dissolving devices incorporating NPs with the perspective to apply this method to the personalised medicine.
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