Objective: To analyze rate and type of complications in cochlear implant (CI) recipients receiving immunosuppressive therapy following solid organ transplant (SOT). Study design: Retrospective case series. English language literature review. Setting: Tertiary referral center. Intervention: Cochlear implantation surgery following solid organ transplantation (SOT) and immunosuppressive therapy. Methods: Data of patients who received CI after SOT and with at least one year of follow up were reviewed. Main outcome measures were the rate and type of complications, classified as major (requiring a second surgical procedure) and minor (requiring medical therapy). A search was performed in PubMed database on January 2019 using the keywords: organ transplant; cochlear implant, complications, deafness, solid organ transplant, immunosuppressive therapy. Only studies reporting on patients who have been implanted after the transplant procedure and with a follow up period of at least 1 year were considered. Final analysis was performed on pooled data. Results: Four patients received CI surgery following SOT. Age at treatment ranged from 40 to 47 years (mean 44.25 years). Follow-up after implantation averaged 5.25 years (range 1–10 years), without complications. Review of the available literature on the subject yielded seven papers; a total of 26 procedures in 22 patients satisfied inclusion criteria. Pooled data from the present series and from the literature were analyzed; the global rate of complications was 16.6%, with 10% major (3 of 30 procedures) and 6.6% minor (2 of 30 procedures). The three reported cases of major complications appear unrelated to SOT. Major complications were found in one case over 16 procedures in pediatric patients (6.2%), while in adults the percentage raised to 14.3% (2/14 procedures). Conclusions: Cochlear implantation is a safe and effective intervention, even during immunosuppressive therapy after organ transplantation.
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