Neuroinflammation occurs in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, anti-inflammatory drugs in this asymptomatic initial phase could slow down AD progression, provided they enter the brain. Direct nose-to-brain drug transport occurs along olfactory or trigeminal nerves, bypassing the blood-brain barrier. Nasal administration may enable the drug to access the brain. Here, flurbiprofen powders for nose-to-brain drug transport in early AD-related neuroinflammation were studied. Their target product profile contemplates drug powder deposition in the nasal cavity, prompt dissolution in the mucosal fluid and attainment of saturation concentration to maximise diffusion in the tissue. Aiming to increase drug disposition into brain, poorly soluble flurbiprofen requires the construction of nasal powder microparticles actively deposited in nose for prompt drug release. Two groups of powders were formulated, composed of flurbiprofen acid or flurbiprofen sodium salt. Two spray dryer apparatuses, differing for spray and drying mechanisms, and particle collection, were applied to impact on the characteristics of the microparticulate powders. Flurbiprofen sodium nasal powders disclosed prompt dissolution and fast ex vivo transport across rabbit nasal mucosa, superior to the acid form, in particular when the powder was prepared using the Nano B-90 spray dryer at the lowest drying air temperature.
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