In this paper, a finite element formulation, using eight independent parameters and high-order spectral/hp functions, for nonlinear analysis is presented. This formulation allows the use of a third-order thickness stretch kinematics, which also avoids Poisson's locking. Full nonlinear terms up to quadratic in the Green-Lagrange strain tensorare retained. Several nontrivial problems are solved using the presented formulation. A comparison between this formulation and others found in the literature,and with shell and solid elements in commercial codes ABAQUS and ANSYS are presented and the differences are brought out.
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