BACKGROUND: Epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) is a new way of allergen administration that has a high rate of adherence and safety. The aim of this manuscript is to review clinical trials on EPIT for respiratory and food allergies published in the last 10 years, taking into account how different variables (i.e., dose, patch application duration, skin preparation, and efficacy and safety evaluation) have influenced study results. MAIN BODY: From a review of the literature, we identified eight placebo-controlled, double-blind trials conducted on children and adults, including four studies on grass pollen rhino-conjunctivitis, one on cow's milk allergy and three on peanut allergy. Different methods for skin pre-treatment, such as skin abrasion and tape stripping or stratum corneous hydration by an occlusive system, different endpoints and cumulative allergen doses, and different durations of patch application and tape stripping, were used in the rhino-conjunctivitis studies. A visual analogue system was used for the efficacy evaluation. Several local skin reactions (eczema) and some systemic adverse reactions were reported at higher rates in the active group compared to placebo in one study, but this was not shown by other authors. Local eczema reactions were correlated to the times for applying the tape stripping, while systemic side effects were correlated to the deepness of scraping. In the food allergy trials, differences in the food challenge thresholds, endpoints and allergen sites of the cutaneous patch application influenced the study results. A slight dose-dependent efficacy was found in the peanut allergy studies, which was confirmed by a more significant increase in the following progressive open study. Few adverse events and high adherence in all of the food allergen trials were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the EPIT study results, even if they were affected by great heterogeneity among the methodologies applied, have shown not only the high safety and adherence with this kind of immunotherapy but also suggested the possibility for obtaining definitive evidence of the efficacy of EPIT, especially for food allergies.

Epicutaneous immunotherapy in rhino-conjunctivitis and food allergies: a review of the literature / Esposito, S; Isidori, C; Pacitto, A; Salvatori, C; Sensi, L; Frati, Franco; Di Cara, G; Marcucci, F.. - In: JOURNAL OF TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE. - ISSN 1479-5876. - 16:1(2018), p. 329. [10.1186/s12967-018-1701-6]

Epicutaneous immunotherapy in rhino-conjunctivitis and food allergies: a review of the literature

Esposito S
;
2018

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT) is a new way of allergen administration that has a high rate of adherence and safety. The aim of this manuscript is to review clinical trials on EPIT for respiratory and food allergies published in the last 10 years, taking into account how different variables (i.e., dose, patch application duration, skin preparation, and efficacy and safety evaluation) have influenced study results. MAIN BODY: From a review of the literature, we identified eight placebo-controlled, double-blind trials conducted on children and adults, including four studies on grass pollen rhino-conjunctivitis, one on cow's milk allergy and three on peanut allergy. Different methods for skin pre-treatment, such as skin abrasion and tape stripping or stratum corneous hydration by an occlusive system, different endpoints and cumulative allergen doses, and different durations of patch application and tape stripping, were used in the rhino-conjunctivitis studies. A visual analogue system was used for the efficacy evaluation. Several local skin reactions (eczema) and some systemic adverse reactions were reported at higher rates in the active group compared to placebo in one study, but this was not shown by other authors. Local eczema reactions were correlated to the times for applying the tape stripping, while systemic side effects were correlated to the deepness of scraping. In the food allergy trials, differences in the food challenge thresholds, endpoints and allergen sites of the cutaneous patch application influenced the study results. A slight dose-dependent efficacy was found in the peanut allergy studies, which was confirmed by a more significant increase in the following progressive open study. Few adverse events and high adherence in all of the food allergen trials were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the EPIT study results, even if they were affected by great heterogeneity among the methodologies applied, have shown not only the high safety and adherence with this kind of immunotherapy but also suggested the possibility for obtaining definitive evidence of the efficacy of EPIT, especially for food allergies.
Epicutaneous immunotherapy in rhino-conjunctivitis and food allergies: a review of the literature / Esposito, S; Isidori, C; Pacitto, A; Salvatori, C; Sensi, L; Frati, Franco; Di Cara, G; Marcucci, F.. - In: JOURNAL OF TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE. - ISSN 1479-5876. - 16:1(2018), p. 329. [10.1186/s12967-018-1701-6]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11381/2864741
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