Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have long been known to interact with living organisms and their cells and to bear the potential for therapeutic use. Among the most extensively investigated applications, the use of Pulsed EMFs (PEMFs) has proven effective to ameliorate bone healing in several studies, although the evidence is still inconclusive. This is due in part to our still-poor understanding of the mechanisms by which PEMFs act on cells and affect their functions and to an ongoing lack of consensus on the most effective parameters for specific clinical applications. The present review has compared in vitro studies on PEMFs on different osteoblast models, which elucidate potential mechanisms of action for PEMFs, up to the most recent insights into the role of primary cilia, and highlight the critical issues underlying at least some of the inconsistent results in the available literature. Bioelectromagnetics. 2019;9999:XX–XX. © 2019 Bioelectromagnetics Society.
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