The human intestine retains a complex microbial ecosystem, which performs crucial functions that impact on host health. Several studies have indicated that intestinal dysbiosis may impact on the establishment of life-threatening intestinal diseases such as colorectal cancer. An adenomatous polyp is the result of abnormal tissue growth, which is benign but is considered to be associated with a high risk of developing colorectal cancer, based on its grade of dysplasia. Development of diagnostic tools that are based on surveying the gut microbiota and are aimed at early detection of colorectal cancer represent highly desirable target. For this purpose, we performed a pilot study in which we applied a metataxonomic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach to unveil the composition of microbial communities of intestinal polyps. Moreover, we performed a meta-analysis involving the reconstructed microbiota composition of adenomatous polyps and publicly available metagenomics datasets of colorectal cancer. These analyses allowed the identification of microbial taxa such as Faecalibacterium, Bacteroides and Romboutsia, which appear to be depleted in cancerogenic mucosa as well as in adenomatous polyps, thus representing novel microbial biomarkers associated with early tumor formation. Furthermore, an absolute quantification of Fusubacterium nucleatum in polyps further compounded the important role of this microorganism as a valuable putative microbial biomarker for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer.
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