(1) Background: Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure remains a public health problem worldwide. The aims are to establish urinary (u-) cotinine reference values for healthy Italian children, to evaluate the role of the sampling time and of other factors on children’s u-cotinine excretion. (2) Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 330 children. Information on participants was gathered by a questionnaire and u-cotinine was determined in two samples for each child, collected during the evening and the next morning. (3) Results: Reference intervals (as the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of the distribution) in evening and morning samples were respectively equal to 0.98-4.29 and 0.91-4.50 µg L-1(ETS unexposed) and 1.39-16.34 and 1.49-20.95 µg L-1(ETS exposed). No statistical differences were recovered between median values found in evening and morning samples, both in ETS unexposed and exposed. Significant predictors of u-cotinine excretions were ponderal status according to body mass index of children (β = 0.202; p-value = 0.041 for evening samples; β = 0.169; p-value = 0.039 for morning samples) and paternal educational level (β = -0.258; p-value = 0.010; for evening samples; β = -0.013; p-value = 0.003 for morning samples). (4) Conclusions: The results evidenced the need of further studies for assessing the role of confounding factors on ETS exposure, and the necessity of educational interventions on smokers for rising their awareness about ETS.
Reference intervals for urinary cotinine levels and the influence of sampling time and other predictors on its excretion among italian schoolchildren / Protano, Carmela; Andreoli, Roberta; Mutti, Antonio; Manigrasso, Maurizio; Avino, Pasquale; Vitali, Matteo. - In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH. - ISSN 1661-7827. - 15:4(2018), p. 817. [10.3390/ijerph15040817]