Background: The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a method for synthesizing a stable suspension of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and to test its efficacy for remineralizing carious enamel lesions. Methods: Hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were synthesized using wet chemistry. Synthesized particles were introduced into a high-pressure homogenizer (5-10 homogenization passes at 15 000psi) in the presence of different stabilizers. Size and distribution of the resultant particles were determined using dynamic light scattering (DLS). The morphology and composition of the nanoparticles were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Subsequently, artificial lesions were treated with HA nanosuspension plus artificial saliva or a fluoride-containing artificial saliva only. Visual analysis and quantification of the lesion mineral density before and after remineralization were performed using microcomputed tomography. Results: DLS and SEM results confirmed the formation of nonagglomerated HA nanoparticles (20-40 nm) following high-pressure homogenization treatment. Quantitative evaluation of the lesions showed that remineralization of the lesion with hydroxyapatite nanosuspension led to a significantly higher level of mineral gain compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: High-pressure homogenization is an effective method for facile preparation of a stable suspension of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. Treatment of artificial lesions with nonagglomerated spherical HA nanoparticles improves the remineralization of enamel lesion.
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