A comparison of juvenile predator-avoidance polymorphisms of Daphnia pulex and D. longispina in a shallow water body of Northern Italy is reported. The presence of the Chaoborus larvae resulted in juvenile adaptive predator-avoidance cyclomorphosis in both species. The frequency of induced morphotypes was higher in the small-sized D. longispina than in the large-sized D. pulex. Relative tail-spine size was higher in D. longispina than in D. pulex. D. longispina displayed much more responsiveness to Chaoborus than D. pulex. Both species showed at least 6 different defensive morphotypes that were classified according to the neckteeth number, the neckteeth position and the thickness of occipital epithelia under neckteeth. The frequencies of different morphotypes varied significantly between species. The developmental responses of Daphnia to the presence of predators are regulated at various levels, according to specific timelines of kairomone sensitive phases and developmental frame of defense trait formation. Variation of a specific timeline might be linked to flexibility in developmental responses of Daphnia to Chaoborus and seasonal variation in the frequencies of various morphotypes. Cyclomorphosis should not only be due to changes in environmental factors that directly affects risk, but also to ones that act as proxy signaling changes in predation risk.

Polymorphisms in predator induced defences of coexisting Daphnia pulex and D. longispina / Maurone, Catia; Suppa, Antonio; Rossi, Valeria. - In: HYDROBIOLOGIA. - ISSN 1573-5117. - 823:1(2018), pp. 121-133. [10.1007/s10750-018-3701-1]

Polymorphisms in predator induced defences of coexisting Daphnia pulex and D. longispina

Catia Maurone;Antonio Suppa
;
Valeria Rossi
2018

Abstract

A comparison of juvenile predator-avoidance polymorphisms of Daphnia pulex and D. longispina in a shallow water body of Northern Italy is reported. The presence of the Chaoborus larvae resulted in juvenile adaptive predator-avoidance cyclomorphosis in both species. The frequency of induced morphotypes was higher in the small-sized D. longispina than in the large-sized D. pulex. Relative tail-spine size was higher in D. longispina than in D. pulex. D. longispina displayed much more responsiveness to Chaoborus than D. pulex. Both species showed at least 6 different defensive morphotypes that were classified according to the neckteeth number, the neckteeth position and the thickness of occipital epithelia under neckteeth. The frequencies of different morphotypes varied significantly between species. The developmental responses of Daphnia to the presence of predators are regulated at various levels, according to specific timelines of kairomone sensitive phases and developmental frame of defense trait formation. Variation of a specific timeline might be linked to flexibility in developmental responses of Daphnia to Chaoborus and seasonal variation in the frequencies of various morphotypes. Cyclomorphosis should not only be due to changes in environmental factors that directly affects risk, but also to ones that act as proxy signaling changes in predation risk.
Polymorphisms in predator induced defences of coexisting Daphnia pulex and D. longispina / Maurone, Catia; Suppa, Antonio; Rossi, Valeria. - In: HYDROBIOLOGIA. - ISSN 1573-5117. - 823:1(2018), pp. 121-133. [10.1007/s10750-018-3701-1]
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11381/2849267
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