Objective The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the evidences for treatment of Cogan's syndrome (CS), with reference to adult and younger patients described in the literature. Systematic review methodology: data sources Studies reviewed were English language original articles ranging from 1990 to 2016 reporting data for subjects with CS (typical and atypical) undergoing any systemic treatment other than steroids alone. Medline/EMBASE, Cochrane Library were searched. The full text of articles meeting selection criteria was reviewed for: study type, diagnosis, number of subjects, treatment type and duration, clinical and/or functional outcomes, possible systemic manifestation or other autoimmune syndromes combined. Results and conclusions The authors identified 76 relevant reports: 4 prospective studies, 2 retrospective studies, 12 case series and 58 case reports. The studies included a total of 141 new patients: based on the available data, 46 men and 50 women with a mean age of 33Â years (range 5â69). In the descriptive analysis adult patients (NÂ =Â 87) were separated from pediatric patients (<Â 18Â years old) (NÂ =Â 17). Concerning treatment strategies, except for a first-line approach to check for a rapid remission, or for a drug sensibility often supporting the diagnosis, a long-term steroidal monotherapy is no longer recommended in CS. As in other autoimmune and rheumatologic diseases, combined treatment with steroid-sparing immunosuppressant agents, also considering âbiologicalâ drugs, is nowadays preferred. However, the evidence of clearly effective or preferable treatment options for CS remains lacking, mostly due to the rarity of the disease and to the consequent difficulty in organizing high-quality prospective trials.
Cogan's syndrome: State of the art of systemic immunosuppressive treatment in adult and pediatric patients / Mora, Paolo; Calzetti, Giacomo; Ghirardini, S.; Rubino, P.; Gandolfi, S.; Orsoni, J.. - In: AUTOIMMUNITY REVIEWS. - ISSN 1568-9972. - 16:4(2017), pp. 385-390. [10.1016/j.autrev.2017.02.009]
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